Leading in a Changing World

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Reflection on Leadership Style

The basic principle about leadership is that one must be guided by a vision that is well articulated and easy for followers to understand (Luc 2009, p. 112). Without such a vision, it is almost impossible for any organisation to make any meaningful progress (Glanz 2006, p. 87). As a leader, I will share my vision with all my followers and make every effort to provide guidelines for effective delivery of services.

Although some people believe that leaders are born and not made, the society needs leaders and we cannot just relax as we wait for leaders to be born (Micciche 2008, p. 47). It is also wrong to assume that teaching someone to be a leader is a task that is next to impossible. Arguably, any person who is a good leader is also a good mentor and can help others become great leaders too. According to Tripathi and Reddy (2008, p. 287), the biggest challenge of the present world is the lack of experienced mentors to nurture great leaders. In order to inspire my followers, I will endeavor to communicate effectively, encourage participation by all and pay attention to concerns raised by my followers.

My Leadership Role Model

To a large extent, the society is shaped by role models and mentors in different areas of life (Ogden & Meyer 2009). At the workplace, role models range from senior managers, immediate line managers or co-workers. In this respect, leaders at any level of the society must serve as role models to shape the future of their followers (Trevino & Nelson 2010).


The person who is inspired my understanding of effective leadership is a former students’ leader during my university days as an undergraduate student. Among many other accomplishments, he demonstrated strong leadership in organizing a fundraising initiative to help a needy student who had just lost his father and mother in a fierce road accident. The accident left the young man with a huge responsibility to take care of his siblings as he was the only older brother who was advanced both in life and age. Through his influence, the students’ leader managed to bring together administrators from different departments of the university as well as students and friends from other universities. Eventually, the committee was established to manage a trust fund in aid of the children orphaned by the road accidents.

The striking characteristics about this students’ leader that inspired me included his ability to rally everyone in pursuit of a common goal, respect for others, caring and listening attitude, and hard work. As a focused leader, he often managed to get his followers to do what was expected. What I liked the most about him is the ability to involve all members of the students’ leadership body in making decisions. Because of his approach to leadership, many of his followers held him in high esteem and were encouraged to take part in any events organized by the students’ leadership body. During his reign in office, the institution enjoyed a great relationship with students and any issue that affected the lives of the students in the institution was dealt with expeditiously.

Feedback from Colleagues about My Leadership


Over the years, I have received constructive feedback from friends and colleagues and I believe that these have helped in making me the way I am today better. At different times in my life, I have failed my followers by among other reasons, not being able to communicating effectively. On many occasions, poor communication led to misunderstandings and friction with my followers. However, constant feedback from concerned friends and followers helped me see my mistakes and work toward changing.

Another hindrance to my effectiveness in leadership has been poor delegation. Although delegation cannot relieve a leader of ultimate responsibility, it helps in getting things done more effectively (Worsam 2002, p. 231). Besides simplifying operations, effective delegation enables a leader to mentor upcoming leaders. Before I understood the importance of delegation, I suffered so much stress and burn out by doing almost everything myself. Feedback from friends and colleagues enlightened me on the benefits of delegation and a change in my leadership style in this regard helped me be more effective.

Leadership Skills I Intend to Develop

Among the list of leadership skills that I have to develop are patience, effective delegation, persistence, and communication. In my opinion, these are very critical skills that all leaders must possess to succeed. Patience, for example, is very important if a leader has to nurture talents in followers (Manning & Curtis 2003). While some people are quick to learn, others may take a considerable amount of time to grasp a concept. Therefore, it is necessary for a leader to exercise patience and allow slow learners to have enough time to catch up (Rothstein & Burke 2010). Having understood the importance of delegation, I would like to improve my skills to be more effective. The same goes for persistence and communication. Although my leadership skills have been strengthened by different situations over time, it is my desire to continue learning in order to become more effective.





Glanz, J 2006, What Every Principal Should Know About Cultural Leadership, Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Luc, E 2009, Unleashing Your Leadership Potential: Seven Strategies for Success, R&L Education, Maryland.

Manning, G & Curtis, K 2003, The Art of Leadership, McGraw-Hill International, New York, NY.

Micciche, R 2008, The Principles of Leadership The People and Events that Inspired My Vision of True Leadership, AuthorHouse, Milton Keynes,UK.

Ogden, G & Meyer, D 2009, Leadership Essentials: Shaping Vision, Multiplying Influence, Defining Character, InterVarsity Press, Westmont, IL.

Rothstein, MG & Burke, RJ 2010, Self-management and Leadership Development, Edward Elgar Publishing, Northampton, MA.

Trevino, LK & Nelson, KA 2010, Managing Business Ethics, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Tripathi, PC & Reddy, PN 2008, Principles of Management, McGraw-Hill International, New York, NY.

Worsam, M 2002, Effective Management for Marketing, Taylor & Francis, Woburn, MA.

Yukl, G 2006, Leadership in Organisations, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.


What is Ethical Leadership

Ethical Leadership


Generally, business ethics help to enforce honesty in business dealings (Cross & Miller 2011). Although Business Ethics and Business Law are two distinct disciplines, they are somehow intertwined. As a result, a businessman or woman who obeys the law is said to be acting ethically right. It is the responsibility of a leader to ensure that subordinates clearly understand the importance of acting ethically right while carrying out business operations.


(Source: ‪FuquaSchofBusiness, 2013)

Different Sides of the Debate on Ethical Leadership and Effectiveness

Tjosvold and Wisse (2009, p. 341) defined Ethical Leadership as the ability of leaders to socially influence what others do in order to achieve a given goal. For a leader to be considered as ethical, he or she must conduct the affairs of a business in a manner that upholds respect for subordinates and must stay away from behaviors that can cause harm to others (Moore 2007, p. 24). In general, the characteristics of an ethical leader include fairness and honesty, displaying a high level of integrity, encouraging followers to act ethically and making it easy for subordinates to share their thoughts freely (Aronson 2001, p. 15). While most leaders believe that the primary elements of ethical leadership are fairness and integrity, some scholars insist that ethical leadership also includes the ability of leaders to make decisions based on principles (Tjosvold & Wisse 2009).


(source: campbell, 2013)

According to Audi and Muphy (2006, p. 25), ethical leaders positively influence the conduct of individuals and this translates to improved organisational performance. Unlike other types of leaders, ethical leaders take responsibility for their actions as well as those of their subordinates. While one may argue that it is important for every person to take full responsibility for his or her actions, an ethical leader can motivate employees by covering them where it is necessary (Audi & Muphy 2006). Apparently, this quality in ethical leaders removes fear among subordinates and encourages them to fully participate in the affairs of the organisation. As a result, ethical leadership positively affects the performance of both the individual and the organisation.

Another quality of ethical leaders that has a positive effect on employee performance is the ability to guide the behavior of subordinates through open discussions (Pless & Maak 2012). Among other benefits, this quality encourages participation and eliminates any form of confusion. Seemingly, this improves the flow of communication between the leader and his or her subordinates and hence promotes better performance by individual employees (Burns 2002, p. 93). Individual efficiency later translates into organisational efficiency.

The listening and caring attitude of ethical leaders also motivates employees to do their best in the daily undertakings (Bryman1992, p. 18). An employee who feels appreciated is always willing to go out of his or her way to get things done. This is further reinforced by the fact that ethical leaders allow subordinates to have a say in the decision making process (Yukl 2006, p. 15). When subordinates notice that their contributions are valued by senior management, they tend to develop a strong connection with the organisation. Ostensibly, this leads to employee empowerment as subordinates become more independent and innovative in their thinking (Nelson 2013, p. 85). Through ethical leadership, an organisation may be able to direct all members of an organisation to achieve goals that benefit individuals, stakeholders and the entire organisation (Bass & Steidlmeier 1999). Clearly, ethical leadership positively influences the effectiveness of individual employee and promotes growth throughout the organisation.

Example of Ethical Leadership


(source: tawdrybeast, 2013)

An example of ethical leadership that has resulted in greater good for many in the society is the leadership by Nelson Mandela, the first President of South Africa. While many leaders in Africa focus more on amassing wealth and being influential, Nelson Mandela esteemed all human beings. Because of his high ethical standards, his legacy lives on long after his death. Unlike other presidents in the Africa Continent, South African presidents tend to behave in a manner that promotes respect for all regardless of the status.

In conclusion, I believe that ethical leadership encourages better performance among individual employees. Ethical leadership inspires subordinates to give their best and leads to efficiency across the entire organisation. Moreover, ethical leadership can help an organisation attract customers and improve the moral standing of an organisation.







Audi, R & Muphy, PE 2006, ‘The Many Faces of Integrity’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 16, pp. 3 – 21.

Bass, BM & Steidlmeier, P 1999, ‘Ethics, Character, and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behavior’, The Leadership Quarterly, 10, pp. 181 – 217.

Bryman, A 1992, Charisma and Leadership in Organisations, Sage, London.

Burns, R 2002, Making Delegation Happen: A Simple and Effective Guide to Implementing Successful Delegation, Allen & Unwin, Australia.

Cross, F & Miller, R 2011, The Legal Environment of Business: Text and Cases: Ethical, Regulatory, Global, and Corporate Issues, Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.

Nelson, B 2013, Law and Ethics in Global Business: How to Integrate Law and Ethics into Corporate Governance around the World, Routledge, New York, NY.

Pless, NM & Maak, T 2012, Responsible Leadership, Springer, New York.

Rainey, HG 2009, Understanding and Managing Public Organisations, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Tjosvold, D & Wisse, B 2009, Power and Interdependence in Organisations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Yukl, G 2006, Leadership in Organisations, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Cook T. 2013, Apple CEO Tim Cook on Ethical Leadership, Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ygNKNaMv4c, 25 Mar 2014.




Managing Change – 2014

Managing Change.

Managing Change

Managing Change

reason for change management is to create an environment where implementing a change is simplified. According to Reiss (2012, p. 6), change management is a key ingredient for success in the current business environment. As noted by Hoogervorst (2009, p. 59), the way that change affects individual employees in any organisation determines the success or failure of undertaking a change management process.

Hiatt and Creasey (2003, p. 10) defined two forms of change management. Organisational change management is concerned with changes that affect the entire organisation. Ordinarily, the emphasis of organisational change management is on training, effective communication and the overall culture of the organisation. On the other hand, individual change management is concerned with helping employees go through a change process successfully. Individual change management is undertaken by managers to ensure that employees are guided toward the achievement of goals.

Argument for and against Author’s Point of View

Contrary to what some people believe, there is so much that a manager can do to minimize or overcome resistance to change. The manager should make every effort to know the source of the resistance and subsequently figure out how to deal with it. Notably, resistance may be overcome through effective leadership, sharing of rewards, assuring employees of their security, communicating effectively and training.

As noted by Rudani (2013, p. 374), change is a critical need for every single organisation that cannot be avoided. Singh and Waddell (2004, p. 70) also argued that resistance to change was an important factor that affected the successful implementation of change in any organisation. In most cases, change is implemented to bring growth and development in an organisation. In this respect, change often meets with violent resistance for various reasons. As such, it is imperative for those leading any change to ensure that they work closely with employees to help them go through the entire change process (Cameron & Green 2012).

To overcome resistance, however, a manager must be well equipped and experienced. While it may not be possible to completely remove resistance, managers should endeavor to reduce the effect of resistance to change.

Team of business people working together on a laptop

The Role of Managers in Avoiding or Overcoming Resistance to Change

Resistance to change must not be treated scornfully and leaders must always seek to understand the reasons for resistance before making conclusions. According to Singh (2010, p. 63), it is improper for managers to assume that subordinates have a perception similar to theirs regarding a proposed change. Often, resistance results from the fact that subordinates do not understand the reasons for change. It is thus important for a leader to take time to understand why subordinates are resisting and look for appropriate solutions. While it may not be achievable to completely get rid of resistance, it should be minimized as much as possible.

Singh (2010, p. 63) identifies six strategies that may be used to overcome resistance to change. First, it is important to communicate effectively and educate subordinates about the change. Ostensibly, advance communication about a change minimizes resistance. Participation and involvement represent another approach that may be used by managers to overcome resistance. Ideally, the involvement of subordinates enables them to understand the need for the proposed change and ensures that they are fully associated with the change (Anderson & Anderson 2010). On the other hand, the use of facilitation and support serves as a great encouragement to the target employees. Usually, the manager trains and counsels subordinates while helping them adapt to the change. Negotiation and agreement are a strategy that may be used in case a manager is dealing with a very powerful resistance from subordinates. Implementing the manipulation and co-optation approach, a manager uses information in a selective way to get subordinates to accept the recommended change. Finally, some managers use explicit and implicit coercion, which involves threatening in order to compel subordinates to accept a proposed change.

Organisational Example of Change Management

As noted by Barrow, Brown, and Clarke (2004, p. 291), there are many scenarios of resistance to change within the business environment. An oil company in the United States, for example, intended to make a change whose outcome was the dislocation of many employees and their families. The proposed change was meant to reorganize the existing company into independent oil and gas companies. To the amazement of senior managers in the oil company, there was a serious outcry from the employees. It later turned out that the top managers’ communication regarding the change was quite obscure. According to the employees, the existing organisation was performing quite well and the proposed change was not necessary. As noted by Cowan (2005, p. 101), managers must justify the need for change if successful implementation has to take place.

In conclusion, it is important for managers to spend enough time to prepare for any change. The reasons for any proposed change must be properly communicated to all subordinates in order to minimize or overcome resistance. Often, employees resist change because of suspicion.

Mahmoud Elsidaoui




Anderson, D & Anderson, LA 2010, Beyond Change Management: How to Achieve Breakthrough Results Through Conscious Change Leadership, John Wiley & Sons, San Francisco, CA.

Barrow, C, Brown, R & Clarke, L 2004, The Business Enterprise Handbook, Kogan Page Publishers, London.

Cameron, E & Green, M 2012, Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of       al Change, Kogan Page Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.

Cowan, SL 2005, Change Management, American Society for Training and Development, Austin, TX.

Hiatt, J & Creasey, TJ 2003, Change Management: The People Side of Change, Prosci, Loveland, Colorado.

Hoogervorst, JAP 2009, Enterprise Governance and Enterprise Engineering, Springer, Netherlands.

Reiss, M 2012, Change Management: A Balanced and Blended Approach, Books on Demand, Norderstedt.

Rudani, RB 2013, Principles of Management, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, New Delhi, India.

Singh, K 2010, Organistion Change and Development, Excel Books India, New Delhi, India.

Effective Leadership Style

Effective Leadership Style.

Effective Leadership Style

 Effective Leadership Style


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Leadership is the ability to provide guidance or directions to followers. According to Stanfield (2009), one does not need a special title in a job to be a leader (p. 10). A person can provide leadership in any situation that requires someone to take charge and show others the way. For those with families, for example, leadership begins at home and a man should be able to lead his wife and children.

Considering that there are many styles of leadership, realizing a concise definition of leadership may be a challenge (Stanfield 2009, p. 10). Usually, how leaders deal with issues tends to vary greatly and mostly depends on the environment a leader is presented with. Ogden and Meyer (2009), argued that leadership is the ability to influence others toward a desired direction (p. 22). Effective leadership, on the other hand, may be defined as the ability of a leader to function at a level that allows an organization to mane maximum benefits (Jenney 2009, p. 9).

Similarities and Differences between Management and Leadership

Over the years, the terms leadership and management have been used interchangeably in the business world though with clear distinctions in meaning. While leadership is about doing the right thing, management has to do with doing things the right way (Collins, Emsell & Haydon 2011). Apparently, both management and leadership are essential for success to be realized. While leadership provides the vision, management is important for the realization of the vision.

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The difference between management and leadership is, however, quite clear. To a great extent, a manager holds a directive position in an organization and performs the functions of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling (Roussel 2011, p. 740). Leaders, on the other hand, are mostly responsible for the future of the organization. While a manager thinks about short terms and is concerned about achieving short term goals, a leader focuses on the long term survival of the organization. A manager is also regarded as a problem solver who succeeds because of intelligence, analytical ability and hard work (Adeniyi & Adeniyi 2010). While managers focus on the achievement of results and investigating the reasons for failure, leaders empower their subordinates and encourage the spirit of team work among them. Managers also tend to be inward focused while leaders are concerned with both the internal and external affairs of an organization. However, while mastering the art of management is good, it is leadership that essentially makes things to move in any organization.

As far as similarities are concerned, scholars are in agreement that an overlap between management and leadership roles within an organization exists (Collins, Emsell & Haydon 2011). To ensure that success is realized, for example, both leaders and managers have to provide inspiration, motivation and direction to their subordinates (Roussel 2011, p. 741). Apparently, these are very critical ingredients for success at every level within an organization.

Variation on the Best Leadership Approach

Uzonwanne (2007, p. 44) identified four different styles of leadership. Directive style of leadership is one where the leader endeavors to guide followers in order to help them achieve their goals. The other style of leadership is supportive and requires leaders to have productive relationships with their followers. Generally, a supportive leader is quite friendly and cares about his or her subordinates. This style of leadership may also be referred to as facilitative one (Olmstead 2010, p. 186). Participative leadership is where a leader involves all subordinates in the decision making process. According to Rainey (2009, p. 320), participative leadership is only suitable where subordinates perceive that their self-esteem is at stake. Most of the time, the leader encourages his or her subordinates to give suggestions regarding decisions that affect the operations of an organization (Griffin 2011, p.42). The fourth style of leadership is achievement oriented. Under this leadership style, the leader defines tasks and subordinates are expected to deliver to a very high standard. According to Cullen and Parboteeah (2013, p. 665), followers are required to obey orders by their leaders and deliver to the expected standards.

How I would like to be led

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As a team member, I would like to be led by a supportive leader. In my opinion, supportive leadership creates a reciprocal relationship between the leader and his or her subordinates and encourages personal development. I believe that supportive leadership will facilitate a smooth interaction between my leader and me. I will be in a better position to understand the requirements of my leader and to give my best in offering my services.

In conclusion, it is imperative for a leader to select the most appropriate style in any given situation. Often, differences in operational environments may emerge because of structures or the caliber of people to be led.









Reference List

Adeniyi, MA & Adeniyi, MA 2010, Effective Leadership Management: An Integration of Styles, Skills and Character for Today’s CEOs, AuthorHouse, Bloomington, IN.

Collins, C, Emsell, P & Haydon, J 2011, Leadership and Management Development, Oxford University Press, New York.

Cullen, JK & Parboteeah, P 2013, Multinational Management, Cengage Learning, Stamford, CT.

Griffin, R 2011, Fundamentals of Management, Cengage Learning, Stamford, CT.

Jenney, J 2009, The Manager’s Guide for Effective Leadership: A Self Training Guide for Building Superior Organizations, AuthorHouse, Bloomington, IN.

Ogden, G & Meyer, D 2009, Leadership Essentials: Shaping Vision, Multiplying Influence, Defining Character, Inter Varsity Press, Westmont, IL.

Olmstead, J 2010, Executive Leadership, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas

Rainey, HG 2009, Understanding and Managing Public Organizations, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Roussel, L 2011, Management and Leadership for Nurse Administrators, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

Stanfield, AW 2009, Defining Effective Leadership: Lead in Whatever You Do, Tate Publishing, Mustang, Oklahoma.

Uzonwanne, FC 2007, Leadership Style and Decision-making Models Among Corporate Leaders in Non-profit Organizations, ProQuest, Ann Arbor, MI.

Diverse Teams

Diverse Teams in Workplace.

Diverse Teams

Diverse Teams

Having diverse teams is generally regarded as the best solution to most workplace challenges (Guffey & Loewy 2010). According to Liu (2007, p. 4) diversity is the number of differences that exist among humans in terms of demographics, ethnic background, age or gender. As noted by Bell (2011), these differences may be real or perceived (p. 4). Usually, the members of a team often work closely to achieve a common goal (Boone & Kurtz, 2010). Studies indicate that diversity in teams lead to improved performance in organisations. Although most people find comfort hanging out with people from a similar background, diverse teams enable organisations to harness the strengths of every individual in a team in order to improve performance. Certainly, different skills and experiences that people in a diverse team bring together make it possible for great victories to be fulfilled.

Generally, authors argue that diversity produces numerous benefits and the ability to create diverse teams is an important quality that all leaders must possess. Leaders who can bring people with varying backgrounds to work together are thus considered as a great asset to any organisation.


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Importance of Diversity in Business and Economics

Arguably, diverse teams allow organisations to eliminate discrimination. People who work in diverse environment tend to trust everyone regardless of their status or ethnic background. According to Page (2007), diverse perspectives often present in diverse teams provide numerous ways of solving problems encountered. Essentially, this increases the possibility of solving problems faster. This view is also supported by Liu (2007) who argued that diversity encourages creativity and enables team members to come up with new ideas because of different opinions and perceptions.

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In recognition of the changing business environment, it is necessary for organisations to be led by leaders with the ability to create and effectively control diverse teams (Staff 2005, p. 74). Unlike in the old days, organisations today are expected to deal with customers from diverse backgrounds, cultures and experiences. It is thus obvious that leaders must be prepared to deal with the diversity that characterizes the current market. Clearly, diverse teams offer the most appropriate solution to this problem. According to Thomas (2010, p. 4), the growth of globalization is the main driver for the adoption of diverse teams.

According to Bell (2011 p. 3), diversity can benefit a business enterprise in a numbers of areas including acquisition of resources, reduction of operational costs, creativity, problem solving and marketing. Most employees prefer to work in an organisation that has a reputation of treating all employees equally. Such an organisation becomes an employer of choice considering that workers are aware that they will be treated fairly regardless of their backgrounds (McKenna 2000, p. 13).

Using Diversity to Produce Better Results

Forsyth (2009, p. 364) argues that diversity can create rifts among team members. Allegedly, this occurs when members of a diverse team begin to categorize each other based on backgrounds or skills they posses. In addition, cohesion lacks in diverse teams as a result of the diversity in culture, knowledge, experience, and ideas. Pinjani (2007, p. 59), however, is of the opinion that members of diverse teams prefer working closely together rather than engaging in the categorization of individual members. Apparently, the flexibility and dynamic nature of diverse teams is very critical in addressing changes in organisations that are constantly changing.

Despite the hitches that may be experienced with diverse teams, they can help improve performance if well managed. The negative aspects of diversity can be lessened by establishing rules and procedures to govern the operation of diverse teams. Leaders must also endeavor to conduct trainings on how to be effective in diverse teams. In addition, sensitizing staff on the rewards of diverse teams is also critical for success. Organisations are however, in agreement that diverse teams inspire innovation among employees (Guffey & Loewy, 2010).

To be a member of a diverse team and succeed in it is a very demanding task. Diverse teams enable organisations to realize better results as opposed to situations where less diverse teams are used. Generally, diversity equips teams with varied skills, knowledge, ideas, and numerous approaches to problem solving. An opportunity to work in an environment where people are different also promotes learning through intellectual interactions and an understanding of rewards of diversity.

In conclusion, the management of diverse teams is the most critical requirement for any business enterprise. Due to increased globalization, organisations have to devise ways of ensuring better performance and effective management of diverse teams is certainly an important need.







Bell, M 2011, Diversity in Organisations, Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.

Boone, LE & Kurtz, DL 2010, Contemporary Business, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.

Forsyth, D 2009, Group Dynamics, Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA. Pinjani, P 2007, Diversity in Global Virtual Teams: A Partnership Development Perspective, ProQuest, Ann Arbor, MI, Germany.

Guffey, ME & Loewy, D 2010, Business Communication: Process and Product, Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA.

Liu, X 2007, Diversity in Teamwork – MARKSTRAT as a Model for Diversity Training, GRIN Verlag, Munich,

McKenna, EF 2000, Business Psychology and Organisational Behavior: A Student’s Handbook, Psychology Press, New York, NY.

Page, SE 2007, The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Staff, KT 2005, Business and Economics, Cengage Learning EMEA, Walworth Industrial Estate, Andover.

Thomas, R 2010, World Class Diversity Management: A Strategic Approach, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco, California.